Case Study Report on Benin, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo

An analysis of policies and roles of local Civil Society Organisations in boosting renewable energy uptake.



The research focused on the state of renewable energy in Benin, Togo, Ghana and Nigeria highlighting potential areas of intervention to support the adoption of renewable energy and foster a just transition to renewable energy on the continent. The report identified the need for strong and steady promotion of renewable energy in the targeted countries, by raising awareness of its benefits and opportunities , removal of financial barriers, implementation of enabling policies, encouraging innovation and research, as well as upskilling of workers.

The report was launched as Civil Society Organizations and grassroots groups under the Afrika Vuka network held actions across the continent to highlight the role of renewable energy as a solution to the region's energy and climate crises.

Download the full report here recognises the interconnected energy and climate crises and the impact and opportunity a just and fair energy transition to renewable energy presents for people across Africa. The organisation supports localised, decentralised, clean, renewable energy alternatives which benefit communities with less energy access.

This report mentions several action points for civil society groups to leverage opportunities and provide better support to renewable energy and climate adaptation and mitigation in the individual four countries through evidence-based advocacy and lobbying using facts and figures.

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Benin is characterised by a large dependency on biomass as a primary source of energy (representing 58% of the energy balance in 2017) on the one hand and on imported petroleum products (up to 37%) on the other. The country heavily relies on electricity imports from its neighbouring countries (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria) and in 2020, the rate of national access to electricity is estimated at 36.5% at the national level (10.4% in rural areas and 64.9% in urban areas). Thus the country is therefore confronted to a twofold energy challenge: reduction of dependency on external imports of energy and fuel in spite of its considerable potential in REs; and the promotion of the development of clean and/or renewable energy sources to improve energy access.

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Ghana has a very dynamic power generation sector that involves both public and private sector companies allowing the country to have one of the highest rates of access to electricity with more than 87% in urban areas and around 50% in rural areas. Its main sources of power supply include hydro, thermal, natural gas, diesel and crude oil. Thermal power generation represents 66% of power generation and the country also exports power to its neighbouring countries namely Benin, Burkina Faso and Togo. Efforts are being pursued to extend the grid to allow further access to electricity by the population as well as exports to the neighbouring countries.

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Nigeria is one of the biggest economies in Africa, richly endowed with oil, natural gas and biomass. It is also one the largest countries in terms inhabitants, recognizing more than 200 millions of people in 2020 of which about 60% lack access to electricity. Despite its position as one of the largest oil producers of the world, the electricity sector of the country is paradoxically weighed down by a lack of production. In 2021, a report by the World Bank and a few other organisations ranked it as the world’s worst country with regards to access to electricity.

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The energy situation in Togo is very similar to the other African countries with the usual disparity between urban and rural areas in terms of energy access. The structure of the final energy consumption is divided into three sources, biomass, petroleum products and electricity, with biomass having the largest share. From 2010 to 2018, the part of biomass energy in final energy consumption accounted for up to 75%, while electricity accounted for only 5% and 20% for oil products. Like Benin, with whom it shares somehow the same collaborative story in terms of energy, Togo also heavily relies on external imports of oil products and even electricity from Nigeria and Ghana.

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As Africa marks Africa Day, it is important to prioritise sustainable development, including access to modern energy services. The promotion of renewable energy in West Africa is critical to achieving this goal, and the new research report provides valuable insights into possible areas of intervention for local partners.

Read new report that reviews the state of renewable energy in Benin, Ghana, Nigeria and TogoA, and where we need to go next:


A new report on #renewableenergy advocacy in West Africa shows we still have a long way to go! 60% of the population in #Nigeria does not have access to electricity & less than 2% of the energy mix in #Ghana is allocated to renewable energy: #AfrikaVuka

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Check it out! There is a new report that reviews #RenewableEnergy in #Benin, #Ghana, #Nigeria and #Togo and why we need governments to support clean and just #renewableenergy projects that benefit people & the planet! Read it here: #AfrikaVuka
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